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 Sniper team Navigation & Movement

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Special Forces
Special Forces

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Sniper team Navigation & Movement Empty
PostSubject: Sniper team Navigation & Movement   Sniper team Navigation & Movement Icon_minitimeSun Apr 06, 2008 6:02 am

Sniper Team Navigation & Movement

Due to lack of personnel and firepower, the sniper team cannot afford detection by the enemy nor can it successfully fight the enemy in sustained engagements.
a. When possible, the sniper team should be attached to a security element (squad/platoon). The security element allows the team to reach its area of operations quicker and safer than the team operating alone. Plus, the security element provides the team a reaction force should the team be detected. Snipers use the following guidelines when attached to a security element:

(1) The security element leader is in charge of the team while it is attached to the element.

(2) The sniper team always appears as an integral part of the element.

(3) The sniper team wears the same uniform as the element members.

(4) The sniper team maintains proper intends and positions in all formations.

(5) The sniper weapon system is carried in line and close to the body, hiding its outline and barrel length.

(6) All equipment that is unique to sniper teams is concealed from view (optics, ghillie suits, and so forth).
b. Once in the area of operation, the sniper team separates from the security element and operates alone. Two examples of a sniper team separating from security elements are as follows:

(1) The security element provides security while the team prepares for operation.

(a) The team dons the ghillie suits and camouflages itself and its equipment (if mission requires).

(b) The team ensures all equipment is secure and caches any nonessential equipment (if mission requires).

(c) Once the team is prepared, it assumes a concealed position, and the security element departs the area.

(d) Once the security element has departed, the team waits in position long enough to ensure neither itself nor the security element has been compromised. Then, the team moves to its tentative position.

(2) The security element conducts a short security halt at the separation point. The sniper team halts, ensuring they have good available concealment and know each other’s location. The security element then proceeds, leaving the sniper team in place. The sniper team remains in position until the security element is clear of the area. The team then organizes itself as required by the mission and moves on to its tentative position. This type of separation also works well in MOUT, military operations in urbanized terrain, situations.
c. When selecting routes, the sniper team must remember its strengths and weaknesses. The following guidelines should be used when selecting routes:

(1) Avoid known enemy positions and obstacles.

(2) Seek terrain that offers the best cover and concealment.

(3) Take advantage of difficult terrain (swamps, dense woods, and so forth).

(4) Do not use trails, roads, or footpaths.

(5) Avoid built-up or populated areas.

(6) Avoid areas of heavy enemy guerrilla activity.
d. When the sniper team moves, it must always assume its area is under enemy observation. Because of this and the size of the team with the small amount of firepower it has, the team uses only one type of formation-the sniper movement formation. Characteristics of the formation are as follows:

(1) The observer is the point man; the sniper follows.

(2) The observer's sector of security is 3 o’clock to 9 o’clock; the sniper’s sector of security is 9 o’clock to 3 o’clock (overlapping).

(3) Visual contact must be maintained even when lying on the ground.

(4) An interval of no more than 20 meters is maintained.

(5) The sniper reacts to the point man’s actions.

(6) The team leader designates the movement techniques and routes used.

(7) The team leader designates rally points.
e. A sniper team must never become decisively engaged with the enemy. The team must rehearse immediate action drills to the extent that they become a natural and immediate reaction should it make unexpected contact with the enemy. Examples of such actions are as follows:

(1) Visual contact. If the sniper team sees the enemy and the enemy does not see the team, it freezes. If the team has time, it will do the following:

(a) Assume the best covered and concealed position.

(b) Remain in position until the enemy has passed.
NOTE: The team will not initiate contact.

(2) Ambush. In an ambush, the sniper team’s objective is to break contact immediately. One example of this involves performing the following:

(a) The observer delivers rapid fire on the enemy.

(b) The sniper throws smoke grenades between the observer and the enemy.

(c) The sniper delivers well-aimed shots at the most threatening targets until smoke covers the area.

(d) The observer then throws fragmentation grenades and withdraws toward the sniper, ensuring he does not mask the sniper’s fire.

(e) The team moves to a location where the enemy cannot observe or place direct fire on it.

(f) If contact cannot be broken, the sniper calls for indirect fires or a security element (if attached).

(g) If team members get separated, they should return to the
(3) Indirect fire. When reacting to indirect fires, the team must move out of the area as quickly as possible. This sudden movement can result in the team’s exact location and direction being pinpointed. Therefore, the team must not only react to indirect fire but also take actions to conceal its movement once it is out of the impact area.

(a) The team leader moves the team out of the impact area using the quickest route by giving the direction and distance (clock method).

(b) Team members move out of the impact area the designated distance and direction.

(c) The team leader then moves the team farther away from the impact area by using the most direct concealed route. They continue the mission using an alternate route.

(d) If team members get separated, they should return to the next-to-last designated en route rally point.

(4) Air attack.

(a) Team members assume the best available covered and concealed positions.

(b) Between passes of aircraft, team members move to positions that offer better cover and concealment.

(c) The team does not engage the aircraft.

(d) Team members remain in positions until attacking aircraft depart.

(e) If team members get separated, they return to the next-to-last designated en route rally point.
f. To aid the sniper team in navigation, the team should memorize the route by studying maps, aerial photos, or sketches. The team notes distinctive features (hills, streams, roads) and its location in relation to the route. It plans an alternate route in case the primary route cannot be used. It plans offsets to circumvent known obstacles to movement. The team uses terrain countdown, which involves memorizing terrain features from the start point to the objective, to maintain the route. During the mission, the sniper team mentally counts each terrain feature, thus ensuring it maintains the proper route.
g. The sniper team maintains orientation at all times. As it moves, it observes the terrain carefully and mentally checks off the distinctive features noted in the planning and study of the route. Many aids are available to ensure orientation. The following are examples:

(1) The location and direction of flow of principal streams.

(2) Hills, valleys, roads, and other peculiar terrain features.

(3) Railroad tracks, power lines, and other man-made objects.
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